To solve this machine, we begin by enumerating open ports – finding ports
49670 open. From port
443, we find a subdomain in the TLS certificate, which gives us access to a subdomain on port
80. Using an SSRF vulnerability on the subdomain, we are able to get credentials to an admin interface hosted on port
80. From the admin portal, we are able to upload a reverse shell, and get access to the machine as
phoebe – who owns
phoebe, we find a vulnerability that allows command execution as
NT Authority/SYSTEM, which we exploit to create an administrative user. Using our created account, we gain access to the machine, and can now read
Like all machines, we begin by enumerating open ports using
nmap – finding ports
$ sudo nmap -v -p- --min-rate 3000 $RHOST [...] nmap -p 80,135,139,443,445,3306,5000,5040,5985,5986,47001,49664,49665,49666,49667,49668,49669,49670 -sV -A -oA enum/nmap/tcp-scripts 10.129.102.57 # Nmap 7.91 scan initiated Sat May 1 15:04:46 2021 as: nmap -p 80,135,139,443,445,3306,5000,5040,5985,5986,47001,49664,49665,49666,49667,49668,49669,49670 -sV -A -oA enum/nmap/tcp-scripts 10.129.102.57 Nmap scan report for staging.love.htb (10.129.102.57) Host is up (0.049s latency). PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION 80/tcp open http Apache httpd 2.4.46 ((Win64) OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27) |_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.46 (Win64) OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27 |_http-title: Secure file scanner 135/tcp open msrpc Microsoft Windows RPC 139/tcp open netbios-ssn Microsoft Windows netbios-ssn 443/tcp open ssl/http Apache httpd 2.4.46 (OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27) |_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.46 (Win64) OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27 |_http-title: 403 Forbidden | ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=staging.love.htb/organizationName=ValentineCorp/stateOrProvinceName=m/countryName=in | Not valid before: 2021-01-18T14:00:16 |_Not valid after: 2022-01-18T14:00:16 |_ssl-date: TLS randomness does not represent time | tls-alpn: |_ http/1.1 445/tcp open microsoft-ds Microsoft Windows 7 - 10 microsoft-ds (workgroup: WORKGROUP) 3306/tcp open mysql? 5000/tcp open http Apache httpd 2.4.46 (OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27) |_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.46 (Win64) OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27 |_http-title: 403 Forbidden 5040/tcp open unknown 5985/tcp open http Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP) |_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0 |_http-title: Not Found 5986/tcp open ssl/http Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP) |_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0 |_http-title: Not Found | ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=LOVE | Subject Alternative Name: DNS:LOVE, DNS:Love | Not valid before: 2021-04-11T14:39:19 |_Not valid after: 2024-04-10T14:39:19 |_ssl-date: 2021-05-01T20:29:08+00:00; +21m18s from scanner time. | tls-alpn: |_ http/1.1 47001/tcp open http Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP) |_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0 |_http-title: Not Found 49664/tcp open msrpc Microsoft Windows RPC 49665/tcp open msrpc Microsoft Windows RPC 49666/tcp open msrpc Microsoft Windows RPC 49667/tcp open msrpc Microsoft Windows RPC 49668/tcp open msrpc Microsoft Windows RPC 49669/tcp open msrpc Microsoft Windows RPC 49670/tcp open msrpc Microsoft Windows RPC Warning: OSScan results may be unreliable because we could not find at least 1 open and 1 closed port Device type: general purpose Running (JUST GUESSING): Microsoft Windows 10|Longhorn|2008|7|Vista|XP|8.1 (96%) OS CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows_10 cpe:/o:microsoft:windows cpe:/o:microsoft:windows_server_2008:r2 cpe:/o:microsoft:windows_7::sp1 cpe:/o:microsoft:windows_8 cpe:/o:microsoft:windows_vista::sp1 cpe:/o:microsoft:windows_xp::sp3 cpe:/o:microsoft:windows_8.1 Aggressive OS guesses: Microsoft Windows 10 1709 - 1909 (96%), Microsoft Windows Longhorn (95%), Microsoft Windows 10 1709 - 1803 (93%), Microsoft Windows 10 1809 - 1909 (93%), Microsoft Windows 10 1511 (93%), Microsoft Windows 10 1703 (93%), Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 (93%), Microsoft Windows Server 2008 SP2 (93%), Microsoft Windows 7 SP1 (93%), Microsoft Windows 8 (93%) No exact OS matches for host (test conditions non-ideal). Network Distance: 2 hops Service Info: Hosts: www.example.com, LOVE, www.love.htb; OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows Host script results: |_clock-skew: mean: 21m18s, deviation: 0s, median: 21m18s | smb-security-mode: | authentication_level: user | challenge_response: supported |_ message_signing: disabled (dangerous, but default) | smb2-security-mode: | 2.02: |_ Message signing enabled but not required | smb2-time: | date: 2021-05-01T20:28:53 |_ start_date: N/A TRACEROUTE (using port 443/tcp) HOP RTT ADDRESS 1 48.34 ms 10.10.14.1 2 48.45 ms 10.129.102.57 OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ . # Nmap done at Sat May 1 15:07:51 2021 -- 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 185.03 seconds
From the results, we find the subdomain
staging.love.htb via the “ssl-cert” nmap script on port
443. For now, we will add it and its root domain to our
/etc/hosts file. Since
nmap showed us at least one subdomain, we use
openssl to check for more potential ones. While running the tool, we also find a potential username.
Next, we enumerate the webservers hosted on ports
nikto. The only significant finding is that there is an
/admin directory located on port
80. Lastly, we check SMB (port
445) and RPC (port
135) for anonymous and
guest authentication, however, these appear to be disabled.
Going to the main website on port
80, we are presented with a login form for a voting system. We try some input validation checks, however, we do not find anything that may be vulnerable.
Next, we go to the website hosted at
staging.love.htb, and are presented with a service called “Free File Scanner”.
Clicking on the “Demo” link, we are taken to
http://staging.love.htb/beta.php. This page allows us to supply a URL to a file that it will scan. Since we are prevented from seeing the webserver on port
5000, we attempt to access it via this tool. After sending
http://localhost:5000 as the URL to scan, we are able to exploit a Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) vulnerability, and access the website. The returned content appears to be administrative credentials for the voting system.
Reflecting back on our previous enumeration, we discovered an
/admin directory on the root domain. Going to
http://love.htb/admin/index.php, we are able to use the credentials, and log into the administrator interface.
Looking around the interface, there is not much functionality aside from creating content. Before we start altering the content, we head to the user’s settings. On this page, we are able to upload a profile picture. From previous experience, we have been able to use this functionality to upload and execute a reverse shell, so we will attempt it here. We know the web server is running php, so we will upload a php reverse shell. Since most our prepared php reverse shells are for Linux, we search GitHub for a Windows-based one. In our research, we find this one. We download it, make the necessary changes, and start a connection listener. Once our shell handler is running, we upload the reverse shell to the website. Once it it uploaded, we immediately get a connection back to us as
Going to the user’s desktop folder, we are now able to read
user.txt. For a better shell, we generate and upload a Windows native reverse shell.
Now that we have a reverse shell as
phoebe, we begin our local enumeration. One of the quick finds is grabbing the database credentials from
C:\xampp\htdocs\omrs\includes\conn.php. These appear to also be be
phoebe‘s system credentials.
Next, we run
WinPEAS to automate the rest of the enumeration for us. One interesting finding we are given, is that “AlwaysInstallElevated” is enabled for the
CurrentUser registry hives. According to this guide, these permissions allow us to install “*.msi” files as
NT Authority\SYSTEM. As the guide details, we generate a malicious “.msi” file using
msfvenom using the “msi” format. This malicious install file will create a backdoor administrator user that we can use. Next, we upload it to the machine.
Once the malicious file is uploaded to the machine, we execute it to create the backdoored account. Once executed, we can use
psexec.py) to log into the machine and read
Thank you for taking the time to read my write-up. I am interested in other ways this machine has been solved. Feel free to reach out to me and we can discuss it. Thanks!